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SHARP Research

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Progress and Promise: Title IX at 40 Conference White Paper

February, 2013--This white paper reviews the proceedings of Progress and Promise: Title IX at 40, a SHARP conference held at the University of Michigan, May, 9-11, 2012. Following the discussion of the conference themes and key takeaways are areas of future research discussed at the Title IX at 40 Conference and compiled by the SHARP Center. There is great opportunity for researchers to link Title IX with many of these future research directions.

Download the white paper.

Women in the Olympic and Paralympic Games: An Analysis of Participation and Leadership Opportunities

April, 2013--SHARP has released its latest research report, which provides new insights into the generally poor representation of women in leadership roles and sports participation in the international and U.S. Olympic and Paralympic organizations. The ground-breaking report also assesses the extent that the International Olympic Committee (IOC), International Paralympic Committee (IPC), and United States Olympic Committee (USOC) are fulfilling their stated missions with respect to gender equality.

Download the full report.

Read the press release.

The Decade of Decline: Gender Equity in High School Sports

Oct. 2012--This SHARP report provides valuable insights into the state of high school athletics and the inequalities that still exist in the US public school system, despite the passing of the landmark legislation, Title IX, 40 years ago.

Download the full report.

Read the press release.

SHARP Center Report: Progress without Equity

The SHARP Center for Women and Girls is pleased to announce its participation in the first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, recently released by our collaborator, the Women's Sports Foundation. This report, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil Rights Data Collection and the Common Core of Data, which is collected by the National Center for Education Statistics.

The report examines gender differences in athletic opportunity in a nationally representative sample of 24,370 public four-year high schools across 1993-94, 1999-2000 and 2005-06. Three measures of the extent of athletic opportunity are documented including the number of athletic participation opportunities, the number of teams, and the number of sports. This report was authored by Don Sabo, Ph.D., Professor of Health Policy, D'Youville College, and Phil Veliz, M.S., University at Buffalo, the State University of New York.

The key findings in "Progress Without Equity" include:

•While high schools gradually increased their allocations of athletic participation opportunities between 1993-94 and 2005-06, progress toward closing the gender gap slowed after 2000.

•Boys received a larger proportion of athletic participation opportunities than girls did for each school year in all communities (i.e., urban, suburban, town, and rural). The lowest percentages of athletic participation opportunities occurred in urban schools, whereas the highest percentages were issued in rural schools.

•Schools with greater economic resources provided more athletic participation opportunities for their students—both girls and boys—than their less fiscally sound counterparts.

•Girls were provided proportionately fewer athletic participation opportunities than boys during each school year and in all geographic regions (i.e., Northeast, Midwest, South and West).

This report provides educators and policymakers at the national and state levels with new and more accurate information. The data presented here reflect the provision of athletic opportunities to U.S. girls and boys during an historical period in which the influence of Titles IX was growing. The results show that while some progress was made toward expanding the opportunity sector of interscholastic sports to include more girls between 1993-94 and 2005/06, gender equity was not achieved.

You can view the full report by visiting here.